Some investments are made within the framework of a Protocol for Agreements for Minority-Language Education and Second-Language Instruction, 2013-2014 to 2017-2018 reached between the Government of Canada and the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC), the key partner for federal intervention in the area of education. This Protocol sets the framework for all the bilateral agreements in this domain.

The (CMEC) also administers the bursary programs Explore and Destination Clic and the language assistant program Odyssey in cooperation with the Department of Education or the provincial/territorial department responsible for post-secondary education.

Annual or multi-year cost-sharing agreements are also reached with provincial and territorial governments for minority-language education to members of official-language minority communities and for instruction of English and French as second official language.